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Spiced Roast Pork with Fennel and Apple Salad

['15 dried Kashmiri, guajillo, or New Mexico chiles, seeds removed', '5 pieces star anise', '3 Tbsp. fennel seeds', '2 Tbsp. coriander seeds', '2 Tbsp. cumin seeds', '1 Tbsp. peppercorns, preferably Tellicherry', '2 tsp. whole cloves', '6 garlic cloves, smashed', '½ cup apple cider vinegar', '½ cup vegetable oil, divided', '1 (4–5 lb.) boneless pork shoulder (Boston butt), tied', '4–5 tsp. kosher salt, plus more', 'Flaky sea salt', '1 fennel bulb, fronds reserved, bulb cored, very thinly sliced', '1 Honeycrisp or other crunchy not-too-sour apple, very thinly sliced', '2 serrano or red Thai chiles, thinly sliced into rounds', '3 Tbsp. extra-virgin olive oil', 'Small handful of cilantro, finely chopped', 'Kosher salt', 'A spice mill or mortar and pestle']

Cook chiles, star anise, fennel seeds, coriander seeds, cumin seeds, peppercorns, and cloves in a dry small skillet over medium heat, stirring often, until slightly darkened and fragrant, about 2 minutes. Let cool. Set one-fourth of spice mixture aside.
Blend garlic, vinegar, ¼ cup oil, and ¼ cup water in a blender until smooth. Add remaining toasted spices and blend, adding splashes of water if needed to help turn the blades, until chile paste is mostly smooth; some texture is okay.
Season pork with 1 tsp. kosher salt per pound (check the butcher’s sticker on the package to see the weight of what you purchased). Smear half of chile paste all over pork; transfer to a wire rack set inside a rimmed baking sheet or a roasting pan and let sit at room temperature at least 2 hours, or cover and chill up to 12 hours.
Finely grind reserved spice mixture in a spice mill or with mortar and pestle. Transfer to a small skillet; stir in remaining ¼ cup oil. Set over medium heat and cook, stirring, until spices have darkened slightly and are fragrant, about 1 minute. Let spice oil cool, then transfer to an airtight container. Cover and set aside.
Preheat oven to 275°F. Roast pork until paste is darkened and looks dried out and an instant-read thermometer inserted into the center registers 120°F, 1½–2 hours, depending on the size. Make sure to take the temperature in more than one spot as there will be thick and thin parts of the roast. Let rest 2 hours.
Preheat oven to 500°F. Rub pork with reserved chile paste and roast until marinade has formed a fragrant crust and an instant-read thermometer inserted into the thickest part registers 130°F, 8–12 minutes. Transfer pork to a cutting board and let rest 15 minutes. Thinly slice and transfer to a platter. Spoon reserved spice oil over pork; sprinkle with sea salt.
Toss fennel bulb and fronds, apple, lime zest and juice, chiles, and cilantro in a large bowl; season salad with salt. Drizzle oil over and toss to coat. Serve pork with salad.

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